1.  Kernel Memory Allocation in 4.3BSD

      The 4.3BSD kernel has at least ten different memory allocators. Some of them handle large blocks, some of them handle small chained data structures, and others include information to describe I/O operations. Often the allocations are for small pieces of memory that are only needed for the duration of a single system call. In a user process such short-term memory would be allocated on the run-time stack. Because the kernel has a limited run-time stack, it is not feasible to allocate even moderate blocks of memory on it. Consequently, such memory must be allocated through a more dynamic mechanism. For example, when the system must translate a pathname, it must allocate a one kilobye buffer to hold the name. Other blocks of memory must be more persistent than a single system call and really have to be allocated from dynamic memory. Examples include protocol control blocks that remain throughout the duration of the network connection.

      Demands for dynamic memory allocation in the kernel have increased as more services have been added. Each time a new type of memory allocation has been required, a specialized memory allocation scheme has been written to handle it. Often the new memory allocation scheme has been built on top of an older allocator. For example, the block device subsystem provides a crude form of memory allocation through the allocation of empty buffers [Thompson78]. The allocation is slow because of the implied semantics of finding the oldest buffer, pushing its contents to disk if they are dirty, and moving physical memory into or out of the buffer to create the requested size. To reduce the overhead, a ``new'' memory allocator was built in 4.3BSD for name translation that allocates a pool of empty buffers. It keeps them on a free list so they can be quickly allocated and freed [McKusick85].

      This memory allocation method has several drawbacks. First, the new allocator can only handle a limited range of sizes. Second, it depletes the buffer pool, as it steals memory intended to buffer disk blocks to other purposes. Finally, it creates yet another interface of which the programmer must be aware.

      A generalized memory allocator is needed to reduce the complexity of writing code inside the kernel. Rather than providing many semi-specialized ways of allocating memory, the kernel should provide a single general purpose allocator. With only a single interface, programmers do not need to figure out the most appropriate way to allocate memory. If a good general purpose allocator is available, it helps avoid the syndrome of creating yet another special purpose allocator.

      To ease the task of understanding how to use it, the memory allocator should have an interface similar to the interface of the well-known memory allocator provided for applications programmers through the C library routines malloc() and free(). Like the C library interface, the allocation routine should take a parameter specifying the size of memory that is needed. The range of sizes for memory requests should not be constrained. The free routine should take a pointer to the storage being freed, and should not require additional information such as the size of the piece of memory being freed.